Monday, November 27, 2017

Embedded Software Course Notes On-Line

I'm just wrapping up my first semester teaching a new course on embedded system software. It covers code quality, safety, and security. Below is table of lecture handouts.

NOTE: there is an update here:
which includes newer course notes and quite a few YouTube videos of these lectures.
You should use that URL instead of this blog post, but I've left this post as-is for Fall 2017.

18-642 Embedded System Software Engineering
Prof. Philip Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University, Fall 2017

1Course IntroductionSoftware is eating the world; embedded applications and markets; bad code is a problem; coding is 0% of software; truths and management misconceptions
2Software Development ProcessesWaterfall; swiss cheese model; lessons learned in software; V model; design vs. code; agile methods; agile for embedded
3Global VariablesGlobal vs. static variables; avoiding and removing globals
4Spaghetti CodeMcCabe Cyclomatic Complexity (MCC); SCC; Spaghetti Factor (SF)
5Unit TestingBlack box testing; white box testing; unit testing strategies; MCDC coverage; unit testing frameworks (cunit)
6Modal Code/StatechartsStatechart elements; statechart example; statechart implementation
7Peer ReviewsEffective code quality practices, peer review efficiency and effectiveness; Fagan inspections; rules for peer review; review report; perspective-based reviews; review checklist; case study; economics of peer review
8Code Style/HumansMaking code easy to read; good code hygiene; avoiding premature optimization; coding style
9Code Style/LanguagePitfalls and problems with C; language use guidelines and analysis tools; using language wisely (strong typing); Mars Climate Orbiter; deviations & legacy code
10Testing QualitySmoke testing, exploratory testing; methodical test coverage; types of testing; testing philosophy; coverage; testing resources
11RequirementsAriane 5 flight 501; rules for good requirements; problematic requirements; extra-functional requirements; requirements approaches; ambiguity
12System-Level TestFirst bug story; effective test plans; testing won't find all bugs; F-22 Raptor date line bug; bug farms; risks of bad software
13SW ArchitectureHigh Level Design (HLD); boxes and arrows; sequence diagrams (SD); statechart to SD relationship; 2011 Health Plan chart
14Integration TestingIntegration test approaches; tracing integration tests to SDs; network message testing; using SDs to generate unit tests
15TraceabilityTraceability across the V; examples; best practices
16SQA isn't testingSQA elements; audits; SQA as coaching staff; cost of defect fixes over project cycle
17Lifecycle CMA400M crash; version control; configuration management; long lifecycles
18MaintenanceBug fix cycle; bug prioritization; maintenance as a large cost driver; technical debt
19Process Key MetricsTester to developer ratio; code productivity; peer review effectiveness
33Date Time ManagementKeeping time; time terminology; clock synchronization; time zones; DST; local time; sunrise/sunset; mobility and time; date line; GMT/UTC; leap years; leap seconds; time rollovers; Zune leap year bug; internationalization.
21Floating Point PitfallsFloating point formats; special values; NaN and robots; roundoff errors; Patriot Missile mishap
23Stack OverflowStack overflow mechanics; memory corruption; stack sentinels; static analysis; memory protection; avoid recursion
25Race ConditionsTherac 25; race condition example; disabling interrupts; mutex; blocking time; priority inversion; priority inheritance; Mars Pathfinder
27Data IntegritySources of faults; soft errors; Hamming distance; parity; mirroring; SECDED; checksum; CRC
20Safety+Security OverviewChallenges of embedded code; it only takes one line of bad code; problems with large scale production; your products live or die by their software; considering the worst case; designing for safety; security matters; industrial controls as targets; designing for security; testing isn't enough
Fiat Chrysler jeep hack; Ford Mytouch update; Toyota UA code quality; Heartbleed; Nest thermostats; Honda UA recall; Samsung keyboard bug; hospital infusion pumps; LIFX smart lightbulbs; German steel mill hack; Ukraine power hack; SCADA attack data; Shodan; traffic light control vulnerability; hydroelectric plant vulnerability; zero-day shopping list
22DependabilityDependability; availability; Windows 2000 server crash; reliability; serial and parallel reliability; example reliability calculation; other aspects of dependability
24Critical SystemsSafety critical vs. mission critical; worst case and safety; HVAC malfunction hazard; Safety Integrity Levels (SIL); Bhopal; IEC 61508; fleet exposure
26Safety PlanSafety plan elements; functional safety approaches; hazards & risks; safety goals & safety requirements; FMEA; FTA; safety case (GSN)
28Safety RequirementsIdentifying safety-related requirements; safety envelope; Doer/Checker pattern
29Single Points of FailureFault containment regions (FCR); Toyota UA single point failure; multi-channel pattern; monitor pattern; safety gate pattern; correlated & accumulated faults
30SIL IsolationIsolating different SILs, mixed-SIL interference sources; mitigating cross-SIL interference; isolation and security; CarShark hack
31Redundancy ManagementBellingham WA gasoline pipeline mishap; redundancy for availability; redundancy for fault detection; Ariane 5 Flight 501; fail operational; triplex modular redundancy (TMR) 2-of-3 pattern; dual 2-of-2 pattern; high-SIL Doer/Checker pattern; diagnostic effectiveness and proof tests
32Safety Architecture PatternsSupplemental lecture with more detail on patterns: low SIL; self-diagnosis; partitioning; fail operational; voting; fail silent; dual 2-of-2; Ariane 5 Flight 501; fail silent patterns (low, high, mixed SIL); high availability mixed SIL pattern
34Security PlanSecurity plan elements; Target Attack; security requirements; threats; vulnerabilities; mitigation; validation
35CryptographyConfusion & diffusion; Caesar cipher; frequency analysis; Enigma; Lorenz & Colossus; DES; AES; public key cryptography; secure hashing; digital signatures; certificates; PKI; encrypting vs. signing for firmware update
36Security ThreatsStuxnet; attack motivation; attacker threat levels; DirectTV piracy; operational environment; porous firewalls; Davis Besse incident; BlueSniper rifle; integrity; authentication; secrecy; privacy; LG Smart TV privacy; DoS/DDos; feature activation; St. Jude pacemaker recall
37Security VulnerabilitiesExploit vs. attack; Kettle spambot; weak passwords; master passwords; crypto key length; Mirai botnet attack; crypto mistakes; LIFX revisited; CarShark revisited; chip peels; hidden functionality; counterfeit systems; cloud connected devices; embedded-specific attacks
38Security Mitigation ValidationPassword strength; storing passwords & salt/pepper/key stretching; Adobe password hack; least privilege; Jeep firewall hack; secure update; secure boot; encryption vs. signing revisited; penetration testing; code analysis; other security approaches; rubber hose attack
39Security PitfallsKonami code; security via obscurity; hotel lock USB hack; Kerckhoff's principle; hospital WPA setup hack; DECSS; Lodz tram attack; proper use of cryptography; zero day exploits; security snake oil; realities of in-system firewalls; aircraft infotainment and firewalls; zombie road sign hack

Note that in Spring 2018 these are likely to be updated, so if want to see the latest also check the main course page:   For other lectures and copyright notes, please see my general lecture notes & video page:

Friday, November 17, 2017

Highly Autonomous Vehicle Validation

Here are the slides from my TechAD talk today.

Highly Autonomous Vehicle Validation from Philip Koopman

Highly Autonomous Vehicle Validation: it's more than just road testing!
- Why a billion miles of testing might not be enough to ensure self-driving car safety.
- Why it's important to distinguish testing for requirements validation vs. testing for implementation validation.
- Why machine learning is the hard part of mapping autonomy validation to ISO 26262

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