Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Only 10 lines of code per day. Really??

If you want to estimate how long it's going to take to create a piece of embedded software (and how much it will cost), it's useful to have an idea of how productive you're going to be. Lines of code written per day is a reasonable starting point for this. It's a crude metric to be sure. If you have enough experience that you can criticize this metric you probably don't need to read further. But if you are just starting to keep count, this is a reasonable way to go. For tallying purposes we just consider executable code, and ignore comments as well as blank lines.

It's pretty typical for solid embedded software to come in at between 1 and 2 lines of code (LOC) per developer-hour. That's 8 to 16 LOC per developer each day, or about 2000-4000 LOC per year.

If you want just a single rough number, call it 10 LOC per day per developer. This is relatively language independent, and is for experienced developers producing code that is reasonably reliable, but not intended to be safety critical.

Wow, that's not much code, is it? Heck, most of us can recall cranking out a couple hundred lines in an evening when we were taking programming courses. So what's the deal with such low numbers?

First of all, we're talking about real code that goes into real products, that actually works. (Not kind-of sort-of works like student homework. This stuff actually has to work!)

More importantly, this is the total cost for everything, including requirements, design, testing, meetings, and so on. So to get this number, divide total code by the total person-hours for the whole development project. Generally you should leave out beta testing and marketing, but include all in-house testers and first-level technical managers.

It's unusual to see a number less than 1 LOC/hour unless you're developing safety critical code. Up to 3 LOC/hour might be reasonable for an agile development team. BUT, that 3 LOC tends to have little supporting design documentation, which is a problem in some circumstances (agile+embedded is a discussion for another time). It's worth mentioning that any metric can be gamed, and that there are situations in which metrics are misleading or useless. But, it's worth knowing the rules of thumb and applying them when they make sense.

Generally teams with a higher LOC/day number are cutting corners somewhere. Or they are teams composed entirely of the world's most amazing programmers. Or both. Think about it. If your LOC/day number is high, ask yourself what's really going on.

1 comment:

  1. I found this page while looking for supporting material for coding rates on embedded projects. A few years ago, on a totally different project, I used your material on CRCs, then again a couple of years after that, I used it again. I first met you at Rochester in 1987 at Larry Foresley's Forth Conference, and bought your "tack Machines" shoretly thereafter. Guess I need to get your Better Embedded System Software book now. Glad to see you are still on top of things! -- Bob Brown

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